Scientific Information


Caroline Roduit et al. (2019): High levels of butyrate and propionate in early life are associated with protection against atopy. Allergy 74(4):799-809. doi: 10.1111/all.13660.

Stefania Marzocco et al.(2018): Supplementation of short-chain fatty acid, sodium propionate, in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: beneficial effects on inflammatory parameters and gut-derived uremic toxins, a pilot study (PLAN study). J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 315; doi:10.3390

Hendrik Bartolomaeus, et al. (2018): The Short-Chain Fatty Acid Propionate Protects from Hypertensive Cardiovascular Damage. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036652

So-ichiro Hirata et al. (2017) Gut microbiome, metabolome, and allergic diseases. Allergology International 66 (2017) 523e528

Karolin Weitkunat et al. (2017): Odd-chain fatty acids as a biomarker for dietary fiber intake: a novel pathway for endogenous production from propionate. AJCN. First published ahead of print April 19, 2017 as doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.152702.

Olga Brandstätter et al.(2016): Balancing intestinal and systemic inflammation through cell type-specific expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor

Claire S Byrne et. al (2016): Increased colonic propionate reduces anticipatory reward responses in the human striatum to high-energy foods1,2,3, April 11, 2016

Renan Corrêa-Oliveira et. al (2016): Regulation of immune cell function by short-chain fatty acids, 18 March 2016

Stefanie Jörg et. al (2016): Environmental factors in autoimmune diseases and their role in multiple sclerosis, August 2016

Ashutosh Mangan et. al (2016): Multiple sclerosis patients have a distinct gut microbiota compared to healthy controls; Scientific Reports, doi: 10.1038/srep28484, 2016

Tan et al. (2016): Dietary Fiber and Bacterial SCFA Enhance Oral Tolerance and Protect against Food Allergy through Diverse Cellular Pathways

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Haghikia A. et al. (2015): Dietary Fatty Acids Directly Impact Central Nervous System Autoimmunity via the Small Intestine; Immunity, Volume 43, Issue 4, p817–829, 20 October 2015,

Park J. et al. (2015): Short-chain fatty acids induce both effector and regulatory T cells by suppression of histone deacetylases and regulation of the mTOR–S6K pathway; Mucosal Immunology (2015) 8, 80–93;

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Fernando Aguilar et al. (2014): Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propionic acid (E 280), sodium propionate (E 281), calcium propionate (E 282) and potassium propionate (E 283) as food additives, 22 July 2014

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2014): Scientific Opinion on the reevaluation of propionic acid (E 280), sodium propionate (E 281), calcium propionate (E 282) and potassium propionate (E 283) as food additives, EFSA Journal,

Genlai Li et al. (2014): Identification of the Porcine G Protein-Coupled Receptor 41 and 43 Genes and Their Expression Pattern in Different Tissues and Development Stages, May 19, 2014,

Mehrnaz Nouri et. al. (2014): Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Develops at the Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, and Can Be Induced by Adoptive Transfer of Auto-Reactive T Cells, September 3, 2014

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Nagenda Singh et al.(2014): Activation of Gpr109a, Receptor for Niacin and the Commensal Metabolite Butyrate, Suppresses Colonic Inflammation and Carcinogenesis, January 09, 2014

Hung CC. et al. (2013): The intestinal fatty acid propionate inhibits Salmonella invasion through the post-translational control of HilD; Mol Microbiol. 2013 Mar; 87(5)

Janet G.M. Markle et al. (2013) Sex Differences in the Gut Microbiome Drive Hormone-Dependent Regulation of Autoimmunity, März 2013

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FDA Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) (1979):

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